Earlier in the year, some students were struggling when putting together a Chinese Dragon for a social studies presentation. They wanted to find a way to attach a large fabric sheet to a cardboard box in a way that allowed for adjustability and easy removal, but secure enough to hold everything in place for the performance. They rigged up a solution similar to a cotter pin using binder clips, pencils and elastic bands. We saw the value in that kind of problem-solving and recognized maker spaces as a way to engage everyone in design challenges.
Too often, though, maker spaces are associated with pricey gadgets, apps, and materials, and while there can be value in using technology, we felt that there was more value working from the ground up. Earlier in the year we had students craft primitive tools from scratch and then use their own tools to perform tasks and create additional tools.Their appreciation for the very basic technologies that contribute to human achievement was obvious in their struggles and pride in their accomplishments. It also doesn't hurt that this approach is possible with an almost $0 budget.
My teaching partner and I identified some core principles for our project: that students would identify an ill-defined goal, understand problems and design solutions in an iterative process of testing and revision. We kicked off the endeavour with some "Paper Olympics" challenge where students had to design solutions to simple problems - spanning a gap with and without supports, strengthening materials, achieving buoyancy, etc.
We also watched the now-famous "Caine's Arcade" video with our students. The students were completely intrigued with the interactive arcade games so we brainstormed a range of familiar arcade and carnival games. Together we identified some criteria and constraints. The arcade game had to have at least one mechanical component, be intuitive to use (no instructions required), and have a "fun factor". Students were limited to using the contents of our home and school recycling bins, and some basic office supplies (paper clips, binder clips, elastic bands, string, etc.) and we offered a variety of adhesives. The most expensive part of the whole project was the large box of hot glue sticks we consumed!.
As subject generalists in the context of a middle-years homeroom setting, we look for curricular integration opportunities. The math element is pretty straightforward - nets of 3D objects, volume and surface area, Pythagoras for sloped surfaces. For the English Language component, we embraced the inventor's notebook. We explored some of da Vinci's notebooks to see how the Renaissance polymath thought, reflected, designed, revised, documented, and explored ideas. Throughout the project, students sketched their plans, described their intentions, designed and tested prototypes, documented their trials, and explained the thinking behind, and details of their revisions.
Some observations: When students hit a roadblock to their design process, they often resorted to decorating or playing their games. We advised students to do so mindfully - think about the gameplay, the impact of the design. It was also common for students to get frustrated after a "failure". We talked a lot about gradual improvement, about not "throwing the baby out with the bathwater" when one element wasn't working as desired. Students also enjoyed checking out each others' projects. We encouraged them to offer suggestions, to compare notes, and to recognize the innovation, creativity, and effort that went into the work so far. It became a pretty supportive and enthusiastic workspace very quickly.
This little 30 second Spark Video lists some of the key elements of the project over short clips of the students at work.
The Edcamp model is creeping into districts looking to offer PD experiences that leverage the wisdom of the group, that facilitate the exchange of ideas, and that build professional networks throughout the organization. I've been involved in a few such events and have done some preliminary research on the topic. Now, a colleague and I are gathering data in a more formal and focused study of edcamps where attendance is mandatory.
If you are planning such an event, or know of someone who is, we'd appreciate connecting and exploring the possibility of administering our survey with the participants. milestomes(at)gmail(dot)com
Knowledge for action: A guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change
Practice and Values
Our practices should reflect our values, but they are not, themselves, our values. The way we do things can change, indeed, they often have to change. Values, on the other hand, are closer to the head and heart and are less likely (but not impossible) to change.
“That’s just the way we do things here…”
If you’re going to hang on to something, hang on to a value over a practice. Your values guide how you approach a changing world and new ideas. The practices you adopt should embody the values you espouse. Appreciating the difference between values and practices can alleviate some of the fears associated with change; we are not giving up who we are, nor what is important to us when we shift our practice. Rather, we are exercising our values in a different, possibly more effective way.
Argyris, C. (1993). Knowledge for action: A guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Teacher's Guide to Project-Based Learning - This PDF is a comprehensive guide to PBL that includes examples, the research base, strategies for implementation and integration as well as forms to guide planning.
Online Resource for PBL - This website has a wide variety of resources for designing, sharing, implementing, and supporting PBL initiatives.
Inquiry-Based Learning - This PDF is part of the same series as the item above. It describes the rationale for using inquiry, the key concepts, and the guiding philosophy.It also offers very practical implementation strategies including conversational phrasing that evokes deeper thinking.
There are two aspects to self-regulation: one is the individual's comprehension of their own physical states and their ability to manage it; the other is the individual's management of their own efforts in terms of purpose and efficacy.The two are intertwined but it is helpful to appreciate each individually.
Self-Regulation.ca is a website that focuses on the physical aspects offering explanations and resources for understanding and developing physical self-regulation.
Calm, Alert, and Learning - This PDF explores the impact of self-regulation on learners along with some frameworks for understanding the component parts of self-regulation.
Encouraging Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) - This PDF surveys the research into the cognitive aspects of SRL and offers specific skills that can be developed to increase the efficacy of an individual's efforts.
Thinking Metacognitively - This PDF offers a brief overview of metacognitive practices, some strategies for implementation, and phrasing that evokes metacognitive thought.
Metacognition - This web page defines, and offers a research base for pursuing metacognitive instruction. It also outlines a framework for implementation and links to external resources and supports.
I used Microsoft Sway to share some thoughts and learnings from an inquiry based/hands-on/place/based/problem-based learning experience focusing on early humans and self-regulation using some elements of the Understanding by Design framework.
My Great Aunt Doris was a school teacher. She has long since left us, but she wrote a short booklet of family memories back in 1983. One of those recollections, titled, "School and Careers", always struck me as both funny and sad and I have always wanted to share the story with others. Here is a little video I made of the story - they are her words.
We certainly have come a long way in how we treat children.
The Annual Reflection on Professional Learning (ARPL) is, I believe, a colossal waste of effort, but not for the reasons you may think...
Schools are filled with very creative and insightful professionals who, every year, craft statements or artifacts that reflect on, and make sense of key learning and experiences in their professional lives. The reflections exemplify key components of instructional leadership, namely reflective practice and a focus on learning for both students and educators alike. As a form of knowledge building, these documents offer valuable insight into the ongoing development of educators at every point in the profession from first-year through to retirement.
And what happens to all this knowledge?
It sits in a central office filing cabinet somewhere never to be seen again.
As a policy tool, the ARPL successfully engages educators in reflective practice but misses the mark when it comes to Public Practice. Instructional leadership requires communication and translation of knowledge from the knowledge creator to the knowledge consumer. Without knowledge translation, the ARPL is little more than an exercise in compliance.
So, do we give up on the ARPL?
Absolutely not - but we do need to approach it differently.
The Profession is the Audience
What if the ARPL was approached as a knowledge building activity - still reflective and still personal, but it would be understood that they would be made public. The audience for these reflections would not be simply the central office or school administrator, but The Profession. We reflect and record our experiences making that learning accessible as a contribution to the betterment of teachers everywhere.
Writing the ARPL in this context connects us as professionals. We become part of a larger community of contributors to the profession, not just practitioners. In submitting their reflections, educators would supply a list of key-words and themes so they can be tagged for easy retrieval. They can also specify whether or not they want their names attached to the published content after they have been reviewed by administrators. The ARPL maintains its policy objective of encouraging reflective practice while gaining tremendous value as a knowledge building and translation tool.
What do you think? Would you approach the ARPL differently if it was going to be shared? Would you be interested in reading others' reflections? Do you think there is value in sharing our professional learning?
Reflections on the article, "The community of inquiry as a basis for knowledge and learning: The case of history" by Peter Seixas.
Seixas, P. (1993). The community of inquiry as a basis for knowledge and learning: The case of history. American Educational Research Journal Summer, 30(2), 305–324.
The author describes how history is less about finding the truth and more about finding meaning. He describes how constructivist approaches To history see communities of interested people come together to find meaning in a text or event. Some value in this process is the continual revisiting of understandings based on current experiences. The danger is that we lose sight of the lessons of the past and move down unproductive or dangerous paths. My own sense is that a continual revisiting, at least for the learner, has tremendous value inasmuch as he or she deconstructs an event or a piece of knowledge and comes to a deeper understanding of the meaning. His mention of historical relativism made me wonder whether there can be any shared agreement on what is/was true that transcends time. Are there historical experiences or understandings that can be taken as fact in any context and at any point in the future. Perhaps it is the notion of pluralism, that many points of view revisiting historical events calls us to reconfirm our shared understandings of what is right and wrong, or true or false. Perhaps it is less a matter of reinterpreting the past and more a matter of revisiting and re-understanding history that makes it vital and meaningful in today's context. As someone on the periphery of academic history, it seems to me less important the way how history is studied and more important that history BE studied.
In constructivist learning approaches, students come together to make meaning. The real deep learning comes from the analysis of their meaning-making, and holding their suppositions up to scrutiny. Like the academic historian, students are faced with revising their suppositions or abandoning them if no evidence can be found to support their position. The question arises about students making meaning that is logically or scientifically incorrect. This is where others in the learning community come together to explore evidence and arrive at a better conclusion. A phrase I frequently use with my students is "history is always changing." This is meant to communicate that history, like science, is simply our current best understanding given the evidence that we have. As new evidence emerges, our understandings may change.
Essential skills in history that are not facts, figures, and events, but processes of inquiry and criticism. Learning to read and observe objectively, construct hypotheses, and support those statements with evidence are the real critical skills. For both students and historians, communities can emerge around ideas. James Paul Gee describes how the Internet affords us virtual spaces that allow for engagement with others regardless of space and time. He calls these "affinity spaces", spaces that bring together people and ideas on topics of interest. Gee puts forth that the Internet allows communities of inquiry to emerge easily, to exist for as long as they need to exist, and compile artifacts of that engagement in a lasting record.
The author talks about the audience for the work of the different groups. In 1993 when this article was written, the Internet was really just emerging into common use. Today, however, the Internet is ubiquitous, And the audience can be understood as the community now. High school student may access academic work making the author part of that student's community. Discussion boards and Internet forums invite participation from anyone interested in the topic. These participants are likely to have a wide range of experience and understandings. Collectively, they contribute, consume, and make meaning in that virtual space.
Gee, J. P. (2013). The anti-education era: Creating smarter students through digital learning. Macmillan.