Distance Education Annotated Bibliography

I wrote this annotated bibliography as part of my participation in the graduate course Critical Issues in Distance Education at the George Washington University.

Annotated Bibliography:
Distance Education

Use of three-dimensional (3-D) immersive virtual worlds in K-12 and higher education settings: A review of the research

Hew, K. F. and Cheung, W. S. (2010), Use of three-dimensional (3-D) immersive virtual worlds in K-12 and higher education settings: A review of the research. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41: 33–55. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00900.x

Hew and Cheung performed a literature survey to identify the range of uses and the scope of research topics and approaches to how 3D virtual worlds were used for teaching and learning. Of the 470 papers they examined, only 15 used a process for collecting and examining data. The three criteria used to identify an immersive world are the use of avatars to represent the user, the ability to effect change in that environment, and a 3D representation of the interactive virtual space.

Virtual worlds were categorically used for three purposes: for communication, simulation, and experimentation. Communication occurred in text, voice, and through manipulation of the avatar`s body language and facial expression. Spatial simulations can recreate real spaces, or serve as spatial metaphors for physical learning activities. Experiential spaces enable learners to interact with virtual representations of physical objects.

The authors go on to say that some educational implementations of virtual environments do not capitalize on the “unique affordances” of this new technology and merely mimic traditional physical world activities. While learners’ anecdotal reporting indicate a feeling that the virtual environment contributed to better learning, objective data are inconclusive.

The affordances of these virtual spaces include the ability to create the feel of a classroom and shared learning space amongst a group of learners, to create a forum and mechanism for robust communication with a non-verbal element, and collaborative and interactive spaces to manipulate objects.

3D virtual worlds as a forum for distance education is relatively new and the social element seems to hold some promise for addressing a common distance education concern: that of a learner’s isolation from instructor and other learners.

On the role of openness in education: A historical reconstruction

Peter, S., & Deimann, M. (2013). On the role of openness in education: A historical reconstruction. Open Praxis, 5(1), 7-14. doi:10.5944/openpraxis.5.1.23

Peter & Deimann seek to better define the “open” concept in education. Starting with a history of open forms of education, the authors describe historical manifestations of what we would now call, “open learning”.

Learning communities emerged in the late middle ages but, not having a central facility, they met when and where resources and space were available. Local cathedrals provided space and organizational support until religious and political influence tightened conditions and imposed fees on participants.

Renaissance coffee houses emerged as a common space to gather, read and discuss the news. Many locations had their own libraries providing very affordable access to books. Increasing literacy, mail service, and the railway in the industrial age combined to enable correspondence education allowing students far and wide to complete courses of study from London University. In the 20th century, labor groups and local communities created libraries to serve their members. Regional efforts to educate the citizenry included providing easily accessible, affordable education to all citizens in both urban and rural areas.

Openness, say the authors, is “not only a technological, but also a social, cultural and economic phenomenon, not bound by institutional or national boundaries.” They identify the use of technological innovations to provide increased access to information and learning opportunities. They also caution against overemphasizing social or connectivist elements in open education recommending sensitivity to the learner’s social engagement preferences. Historically, many open systems eventually close as notions of increasing efficiency and productivity trump the notions of providing access.

A multidimensional info-sensorium holodeck: Emerging analytics to measure general organization evolution

Sepulveda, A. (2012). A multidimensional info-sensorium holodeck: Emerging analytics to measure general organization evolution. In Virtual Worlds Best Practices in Education March 2012 (pp. 132-135). Newport Beach, California: Rockcliffe University Consortium.

The article explores a fully-immersive environment in which the user interacts with holographic representations of data. The room, called the orgDECK™ uses multi-sensorial tracking systems where the user’s position, movement, and visual focus evoke visual, audio, haptic, and olfactory responses from the computer. In this way, users can experience and engage with data in novel ways that create a more holistic awareness of the data.

Conceived as a way to experience analytic data for evolving organizations, the technology offers interactions that have much broader application. One can conceive of complete sensory immersion for history students to experience recreations of ancient civilizations, visits to remote places on Earth or other planets, and walking tours through a micro-environment or body system.

As it applies to distance education, such technology makes it virtually possible to bring locations to the user with a multi-sensory experience. Innovative delivery and interaction technologies such as this offer a glimpse into the future of distance learning. Exploring how these systems influence relationships, cognition, and engagement could guide current pedagogy and curriculum development to accommodate emerging technologies.

Confronting the Bias Against On-Line Learning in Management Education

Redpath, L., (2012). Confronting the Bias Against On-Line Learning in Management Education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 11(1), 125-140. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amle.2010.0044

Redpath conducted comparative research to identify factors contributing to resistance to and undervaluing of distance education programs. Negative attitudes include a sense that distance learning is inferior to face-to-face learning. Traditional in-person models of content delivery rank higher in accreditation standards and are therefore biased against distance programs. The author suggests financial motivations to keep students on campus, and the cost of designing custom programs for effective distance delivery.

Experience with distance teaching and learning reinforces positive attitudes; those with the least experience with distance teaching and learning have the most negative attitudes. Redpath calls for more sharing of distance learning studies and experience across disciplines to inform and change attitudes to be more favorable to distance education

Understanding resistance to distance learning may reveal areas of legitimate concern that can be considered, incorporated, or addressed in program development thus leading to a more effective program.

The concept of openness behind c and x-MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses)

Rodriguez, O., (2013). The concept of openness behind c and x-MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses). Open Praxis, 5(1), 67-73.

Rodrigues explains the structural and pedagogical differences between two types of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) recently described as connectivist cMOOCs and behaviorist xMOOCs. He also examines participant, “demographic information, familiarity and use of technology and social media and participant satisfaction with the course.”

cMOOCs rely on learning communities in which the learner’s journey is a shared experience with others in the course. Learners share challenges and understandings working together to build their capacity with the topic. The teacher’s role is better described as facilitator as the learners themselves largely create the course content. Content in an xMOOC, on the other hand, is identified, prepared, delivered, and assessed by instructors. Learners consume, process, and participate in demonstrations of understanding.

Openness in an xMOOC includes participation, but course format, resources, and content are generally controlled in a closed system. cMOOCs, on the other hand, have open participation, use open content, and accommodate flexibility in the format.

While both MOOC formats are experiencing success, Rodrugiez encourages additional research into who is participating, and how those learners learn, and what subject matter is best suited for MOOCs.

Using Procedural Scaffolding to Support Online Learning Experiences

Davis, Marjorie T., (2006) Using Procedural Scaffolding to Support Online Learning Experiences. International Professional Communication Conference, 2006 IEEE , 144-147.

http://www.rose-hulman.edu/Users/faculty/williams/Public/PDF%20Files/20.pdf

Davis explains the supports used in an online degree in Technical Communication Management. She describes the effort required to scaffold not only the course content, but also the course interactions as significant, but worthwhile.

Personal homepages are used to create individual profiles that serve bring class participants closer together. Frequent contact through a listserv encourages ongoing dialogue with the instructor and amongst students. Extensive feedback is provided by both instructor and students on a learner’s assignments.

Regular online synchronous chats are used to keep students engaged and on top of their work and focuses on conversations that make personal connections with the course content. A discussion board is where longer, more in-depth reflections are posted. These serve to crystallize the learner’s thoughts in the process of writing, and provides a forum for critique and feedback from others. Group work, peer feedback, and leadership are built-in to the course as a way to encourage interaction and develop those skills. Even though they may not specifically be part of the formal learning outcomes, they are valuable skills. Finally, engagement with learning outcomes is couched in situations that reflect the performance context.

Planning for communication in distance learning experiences is particularly important and course designers do well to consider the fit between function and form, message and vehicle.

Predicting Student Performance in Web-Based Distance Education Courses Based on Survey Instruments Measuring Personality Traits and Technical Skills

Hall, M., (2008). Predicting Student Performance in Web-Based Distance Education Courses Based on Survey Instruments Measuring Personality Traits and Technical Skills, Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 11(3).
http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall113/hall113.html

The study looked at two surveys intended to predict success as a distance education students based on self-reported facility with technology, and social preferences and motivation. These surveys are widely informally used by institutions to inform potential students’ decisions about pursuing distance learning opportunities.

While the two survey tools are reported to have face validity, Hall sought to empirically validate their predictive validity. Administering the test to several hundred students and comparing the results to the students’ final grades, Hall found little to suggest the surveys were accurate at predicting student success.

Hall warns against using these tools for counseling and recommends development of a better instrument more closely tied to attributes related to success in distance education. He also suggests exploring existing attribute and personality inventories for correlation to success in distance education for use as predictors of success.

Predicting student success in open and distance learning

Simpson, O., (2006). Predicting student success in open and distance learning, Open Learning, 23(2), 125–138.
http://www.ormondsimpson.com/USERIMAGES/Open%20Learning%20predic%20art.pdf

Exploring first the benefits of a predictive tool for determining a student’s success in distance education, Simpson goes on to explore possibilities for such measures. He explores correlative studies of student success on several measures including emotional and intellectual inventories. Based on data from these measures, targeted intervention and support programs significantly reduce drop-out rates.

The best predictor of future success is past success. Simpson identifies several factors that are more predictive including faculty choice, course level, credit rating, past experience, education level, socio-economic status, gender, and age. Analysis of these factors successfully predicted pass/fail 65% of the time.

Targeted interventions for students who are marginally at risk as identified by this data is more successful at increasing retention than supports for those more significantly at risk. Simpson raises ethical concerns about using this data to limit admissions showing limitations of the data collected.

 

Distance learning and online degrees: are the worth it?

MIT School of Law (2006). Distance learning and online degrees: are they worth it? [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rYPLM4PoZSU

Video (1:03:37)

This panel discussion moderated by Kurt Olson, Professor MIT explores a broad range of issues related to distance education including negative perceptions of online degrees, Open Education Resources (OER), changing roles of teachers and learners, and the potential impact on institutions of learning.

Jon Paul Potts, Director of Marketing Communications at MIT OpenCourseWare at Massachusetts Institute of Technology spoke to MIT’s participation in the Open education movement by freely sharing course materials online. Questions of propriety, market share, and intellectual property are explored as well as concerns about tuition-paying students seeing their courses given away online at no cost. Potts draws a distinction between the personal contact, assessment, and accreditation a paying student receives and the simple access to content a consumer of Open resources has.

Ed Klonoski of the Connecticut Distance Learning Consortium explains benefits of distance learning bringing access to learning to segments of the population that wouldn’t otherwise have access. He also explores affordances of distance learning in terms of communication and interactivity compared to traditional classrooms. Klonoski seeks to assuage concerns and fears about the changes to learning institutions as a result of the growth of distance learning.

Todd Oppenheimer, author of “The Flickering Mind: Saving Education from the False Promise of Technology” raises concerns about distance education as an isolating experience that, “dilutes the culture of learning that holds learners to a high standard.” Oppenheimer says that limiting study to online resources limits learners to a significant portion of information that does not yet exist online. In-person learning, he suggests, is superior to distance learning because of the human element.

Open Educational Resources and the Transformation of Education

Tuomi, I., (2013). Open Educational Resources and the Transformation of Education, European Journal of Education, 48(1), 58-78.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ejed.12019/pdf

Tuomi writes frequently on transformations in education and the economy brought about by advancements in communication and the Open technologies movement. In this article, he begins by describing the four key types of Open Education Resources (OER) in increasing levels of openness.

  1. Access and Accessibility
  2. Right and Capability to use
  3. Right and Capability to modify
  4. Right to redistribute modified

Using an economic model of understanding goods, Tuomi describes OER as more than a public good inasmuch as the right to remix and add value continuously adds to the quality of the product. These four types of OER are also tied to different Creative Commons licenses. OER types 1 and 2 correspond to an Attribution-No Derivatives license (CC BY-ND) while type 4 reflects an Attribution-Share Alike license (CC BY-SA).

Tuomi notes that education systems are intended to address four functions: to simplify social complexity, enable productivity, transfer cultural understandings, and develop the individual. He further speculates on changes in each of these four areas in the context of widely available and accessible OER.

OER in a knowledge society requires shifts from individualistic behavioristic approaches to education to more distributed and social realms. In an Open economy where use of learning resources contributes to the improvement of those same resources and increases the capacity for customization, educational systems will necessarily transform to leverage the affordances of these resources.

Getting an education on-line

Cotnam, H. (Producer) (25 July 2012). Getting an education on-line [Radio series episode]. In Ontario Today. Toronto: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/player/Radio/Local Shows/Ontario/Ontario Today/ID/2260364512/

Audio (27:07)

In this episode of Ontario Today, a regional call-in program on Canada’s national public broadcaster, host Hallie Cotnam speaks with George Siemens about MOOCs and their impact on higher learning. Siemens speaks to open access to high quality education for anyone who wants it. Clarifying questions on accreditation, he says that while MOOCs are delivered worldwide, the accreditation process happens locally in the learners’ jurisdiction if there are institutions that will accept the learner’s participation for credit.

Siemens also talks of the pedagogical and organizational changes required to make MOOCs work including teacher to facilitator, and student to “learner”. He addressed what happens to institutional brands when their content is made freely available in Open arrangements, tiers of learning where learner accreditation may or may not be part of the experience, and the high drop-out rates in MOOCs.

He ends by saying that MOOCs greatest impact will be seen in countries that have gutted their education funding and are increasingly relying on user-pay models.

MOOCs and the AI-Stanford like Courses: Two Successful and Distinct Course Formats for Massive Open Online Courses

Rodriguez, C. O. (2012). MOOCs and the AI-Stanford like Courses: Two Successful and Distinct Course Formats for Massive Open Online Courses. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning. Retrieved from http://www.eurodl.org/index.php?p=archives&year=2012&halfyear=2&article=516

As a researcher, observer, and participant Rodriguez reflects on and examines several early MOOC courses. He describes course content, general participant profiles, an analysis of collected and published data, and the tools used in the courses.

From his experience and analysis, Rodriguez delineates three categories of distance education: cognitive/behaviorist, social constructivist, and connectivist. He refers to connectivist MOOCs as cMOOCs and the cognitive/behaviorist category as AI after the Artificial Intelligence MOOC offered by Stanford in the fall of 2011. Elsewhere, these courses are more commonly referred to as xMOOCs.

The primary difference between AI and cMOOCs, the author notes, are the pedagogical models used and the learning theories they represent. He also highlights dropout rate differences between AI and cMOOC courses as well as so-called “Lurkers”, registered learners who view content but are not active participants.

Finally, he raises issues of accreditation in cMOOCs in particular where content is learner-identified and can evolve over the course of study. The variety of content and the extreme individualization that it enables is both a benefit, and a challenge to wider acceptance for credit by institutions.

Between Purpose and Method: A Review of Educational Research on 3D Virtual Worlds

Kim, S., Lee, J., & Thomas, M. (2012). Between Purpose and Method: A Review of Educational Research on 3D Virtual Worlds. Journal For Virtual Worlds Research, 5(1). doi:10.4101/jvwr.v5i1.2151

 Kim et.al. performed a detailed analysis of research methods and trends in research into K12 and higher education use of 3D virtual worlds. The most widespread use of such spaces was for simulation of space but actual applications varied by discipline.

As a new educational environment for teaching and learning, the affordances of 3D virtual worlds are still being discovered. One such affordance that differs from traditional and other technology tools, is the ability for the learner to express action and intention on objects and other users by way of a chosen avatar.

Offering “a sense of space, locality, presence, and dynamic conditionality”, these virtual spaces offer the opportunity to interact synchronously with people, places, and objects. For distance learners, the inclusion of environmental and conditional immersion is unique to 3D virtual spaces and adds complexity to explain the variety of studies surveyed and the manner by which they were analyzed and categorized providing useful categories for further study, planning, and implementation of 3D virtual worlds for teaching and learning.

Fighting Technical Complexity in Authoring E-Learning Material

Iorio, A. D., Feliziani, A. A., Mirri, S., Salomoni, P., & Vitali, F. (2008). Fighting Technical Complexity in Authoring E-Learning Material. doi:10.1109/ICALT.2008.246

The authors propose an approach to e-Learning creation that mediates between the content expert and the technical knowhow required. It is clear from the paper that their focus was primarily on behaviorist learning models reflecting traditional classroom teaching and learning. They identify four factors to consider when designing e-Learning material: portability and reuse (having content in a form that is easily deployed in different settings), universality (accessible on a variety of platforms), usability (user-friendly interfaces), and accessibility (accommodating assistive technologies)

Iterative instructional design is needed to ensure pedagogical approaches used by the content expert can work within the limitations of the means of delivery. Associated works to support learning must also be made accessible as well as the means by which knowledge is transferred.

Iorio  et al highlight an application called ISA-WebLob which purports to simplify the authoring process and address the four factors they identify at the start of the article. This system reads user input tags to sort and organize content in a manner that is portable, universal, usable, and accessible.

This article published in 2007, underscores the importance of understanding the pedagogical models and dominant learner profiles used by course management system developers. Some systems may better accommodate specific learning models than others.

Integrating Blogging and Microblogging to Foster Learning and Social Interaction in Online Learning Communities

Thoms, B. (2012, January). Integrating Blogging and Microblogging to Foster Learning and Social Interaction in Online Learning Communities. Paper presented at the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Maui. IEEE Computer Society. doi:10.1109/HICSS.2012.332

Focused on asynchronous technologies, the authors explore how Web 2.0 technologies facilitate the formation of online learning communities in higher education. Blogging is shown to encourage thoughtful consideration of new learning and the development of an online identity that reflects academic engagement. Microblogging, Twitter, in this case, is identified as a fast-growing platform for communicating real-time focused messages amongst learners and instructors. This study implemented both blogs and microblogging to encourage learner reflection and social engagement.

Using these tools, the authors sought to create a learning platform that differentiated itself from other course management software inasmuch as it was well-suited to constructivist pedagogy. Custom code enabled integration of the two platforms by showing Twitter engagement within the blog itself.

Learners used both the blog and Twitter for required course content. Post-course surveys revealed that all students participated in the two platforms to varying degrees. While nearly three-quarters of the students reported positive experiences with microblogging, less than half the respondents said it increased interactions and contributed to learning. Blogging, on the other hand, three-quarters of the respondents indicated it contributed to increased learning and led to greater interactions amongst students contributing to a greater sense of community.

Thoms speculates that the use of both microblogging and blogging platforms in one course may have diluted the success of any one of them alone. He suggests that targeted application for each platform may help guide learners in their use of the technology and contribute to a more positive learning experience.

Supporting Online Coordination of Learning Teams through Mobile Devices

Roig-Torres, J.; Xhafa, F.; Caballe, S., "Supporting Online Coordination of Learning Teams through Mobile Devices," Complex, Intelligent and Software Intensive Systems (CISIS), 2012 Sixth International Conference on , vol., no., pp.941,946, 4-6 July 2012
doi: 10.1109/CISIS.2012.189

Mobile technology present many new opportunities for education contributing to individualization of content and collaboration with others individually, in small groups, or as a whole learning community. With the ultimate aim of introducing efficiencies in study groups, the authors analyze and categorize the nature of interactions within a study group. With that understanding they seek alternative systems architectures and user interfaces to expedite communications.

The programmers first sought to understand user engagement patterns then designed a structure to facilitate those. Next, the user interface accounted for common mobile usage patterns such as multi-tasking, small screen, and limited typing ability. Menus were designed to keep the most common commands at hand.

Performance modules provided communication and organizational tools for group members. The user-centered design process employed by Roig-Torres et al demonstrate a clear understanding of mobile/distance learner needs and leverage the affordances of mobile networked technologies.

Learning Strategies in Online Collaborative Examinations

Shen, J., Hiltz, S. R., & Bieber, M. (2008). Learning Strategies in Online Collaborative Examinations. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication. doi:10.1109/TPC.2007.2000053

Using assessment tools that reflect constructivist learning theory, the authors performed an empirical study of student learning styles and strategies when preparing and engaging with a collaborative summative assessment. The study reveals higher social engagement and deeper learning. There was a significant correlation between these experiences and the learner’s predisposition to surface or deep learning.

Shen et al administered three different exam modes each reflecting a different model of instruction and assessment. The first is a traditional instructor created, administered, and graded exam. In the second participatory exam, individual learners create questions, review together, then answer other’s questions. The final collaborative exam mode sees groups collaborate on question design, review together, then collaborate on grading each individual’s responses.

Surveys were administered and results analyzed for trends in learner approaches to preparation and predisposition to surface or deep learning. It was found that the exam model itself did not motivate deep learning strategies but collaborative exams did foster greater engagement with the content and with others. Small group activities were identified as an important contributor to creating a sense of community, which, in turn, contributed to greater engagement. Both perceived and actual results were (not statistically significantly) higher amongst the collaborative exam takers than other groups.

Content Aggregation and Knowledge Sharing in a Personal Learning Environment: Serendipitous and Emergent Learning in Open Online Networks

Saadatmand, M., & Kumpulainen, K. (2012). Content Aggregation and Knowledge Sharing in a Personal Learning Environment. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 8, 70-78. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3991%2Fijet.v8iS1.2362

This study examines the tools used by learners in an open learning environment for the purposes of collecting, creating, and sharing content. While institutional course management software may be offered as the primary mechanism for engagement, students themselves are capable of creating their own digital learning spaces using technology of their own choosing. Saadatmand & Kumpulainen explore the nature of these individual personal learning environment (PLE) and serendipitous learning.

The authors describe how PLEs may include a broad range of media reflecting a broad spectrum of content. Learners thoughtfully and reflectively employ communication tools to make content connections, as well as unexpected discoveries arising from peripheral information encounters that may give rise to creative understandings of more conventional content.

There is a conceptual repositioning of the learner from target of instruction to center of learning wherein the learner exercises autonomy within their own constructed learning environment.

Emergent learning and learning ecologies in Web 2.0

Williams, R., Karousou, R., & Mackness, J. (2011). Emergent learning and learning ecologies in Web 2.0. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12 (3). pp. 39-60. ISSN 1492-3831

e-Learning is increasingly understood as a human behavior rather than an institutional product. Ubiquitous access to information provided by mobile technologies introduces new opportunities for learning. While educational institutions are embracing Web 2.0 the teaching models remain largely rooted in traditional behavioristic pedagogies.

In this theoretical paper, the authors explore the conditions in which emergent learning (learning that is, with limited constraints, self-directed) flourishes. Examining prescriptive learning systems provides a useful backdrop against which emergent learning networks and new ways of learning can be understood. Connectivist learning theory describes the processes by which learners create meaning through social engagement facilitated by Web2.0 tools.

Managing and designing for emergent learning is more a matter of intent and attitude than procedure recognizing that successful open learning environments are most effective when focused by some constraints. Reflective practices serve to validate understanding and ameliorate misunderstanding.

Understanding the affordances of Web2.0 and personal learning ecologies radically changes how we see teaching and learning. In a self-managed social learning environment, the curriculum is not specific content, but is, rather, the communication and interactions with others resulting in learning artifacts that can benefit other learners.

The Ideals and Reality of Participating in a MOOC

Mackness, J., Mak., S.F.J., Williams, R. (2010). The Ideals and Reality of Participating in a MOOC, Seventh International Conference on Networked Learning, Aalborg, Denmark.

This paper explores participant experience in the 2008 University of Manitoba’s pioneer course CCK08, “Connectivism and Connective Knowledge” organized and coordinated by Stephen Downes and George Siemens. The course itself sought to explore connectivist learning theory through the experience and analysis of connectivist learning experiences as created by the participants.

The course allowed for the use of a wide spectrum technologies taking engagement outside conventional course management systems into a broader social media ecosystem. Learning occurs through forming both logical and creative connections in social and cognitive spaces. Participants are encouraged to exercise autonomy with direction and focus openly sharing product and process learning within and without the diversity of the larger learning community.

Based on e-mail survey results, most participants valued the autonomy afforded to them in the MOOC format but noted some structure and guidance with the new format was desired. Instructor feedback suggested some frustration insofar as some learners did not pick up on a central experiential outcome of the course, namely understanding the concept of connectivism.

Lack of engagement by a large portion of those enrolled (more than 80%) was interpreted in several ways: they had dropped out, they were “lurking”, they lacked confidence, or preferred to work alone. While these participants took advantage of the autonomy and freedom to work in this way, they did not capitalise on true connectivist learning rooted in collaborative meaning-making.

The discussion section of this paper explores the challenges and possible approaches for addressing the key elements of MOOCs: autonomy, diversity, openness and connectedness. The authors suggest finding the right amount of constraints is key to making openness work.

Bibliography

  • Cotnam, H. (Producer) (25 July 2012). Getting an education on-line [Radio series episode]. In Ontario Today. Toronto: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/player/Radio/Local Shows/Ontario/Ontario Today/ID/2260364512/
  • Davis, Marjorie T., (2006) Using Procedural Scaffolding to Support Online Learning Experiences. International Professional Communication Conference, 2006 IEEE , 144-147.
  • Hall, M., (2008). Predicting Student Performance in Web-Based Distance Education Courses Based on Survey Instruments Measuring Personality Traits and Technical Skills, Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 11(3).
  • Hew, K. F. and Cheung, W. S. (2010), Use of three-dimensional (3-D) immersive virtual worlds in K-12 and higher education settings: A review of the research. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41: 33–55. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00900.x
  • Iorio, A. D., Feliziani, A. A., Mirri, S., Salomoni, P., & Vitali, F. (2008). Fighting Technical Complexity in Authoring E-Learning Material. doi:10.1109/ICALT.2008.246
  • Kim, S., Lee, J., & Thomas, M. (2012). Between Purpose and Method: A Review of Educational Research on 3D Virtual Worlds. Journal For Virtual Worlds Research, 5(1). doi:10.4101/jvwr.v5i1.2151
  • Mackness, J., Mak., S.F.J., Williams, R. (2010). The Ideals and Reality of Participating in a MOOC, Seventh International Conference on Networked Learning, Aalborg, Denmark.
  • MIT School of Law (2006). Distance learning and online degrees: are they worth it? [Video file]. Retrieved from
  • Peter, S., & Deimann, M. (2013). On the role of openness in education: A historical reconstruction. Open Praxis, 5(1), 7-14. doi:10.5944/openpraxis.5.1.23
  • Redpath, L., (2012). Confronting the Bias Against On-Line Learning in Management Education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 11(1), 125-140. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amle.2010.0044
  • Rodriguez, C. O. (2012). MOOCs and the AI-Stanford like Courses: Two Successful and Distinct Course Formats for Massive Open Online Courses. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning. Retrieved from
  • Rodriguez, O., (2013). The concept of openness behind c and x-MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses). Open Praxis, 5(1), 67-73.
  • Roig-Torres, J.; Xhafa, F.; Caballe, S., "Supporting Online Coordination of Learning Teams through Mobile Devices," Complex, Intelligent and Software Intensive Systems (CISIS), 2012 Sixth International Conference on , vol., no., pp.941,946, 4-6 July 2012
  • Saadatmand, M., & Kumpulainen, K. (2012). Content Aggregation and Knowledge Sharing in a Personal Learning Environment. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 8, 70-78. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3991%2Fijet.v8iS1.2362
  • Sepulveda, A. (2012). A multidimensional info-sensorium holodeck: Emerging analytics to measure general organization evolution. In Virtual Worlds Best Practices in Education March 2012 (pp. 132-135). Newport Beach, California: Rockcliffe University Consortium.
  • Shen, J., Hiltz, S. R., & Bieber, M. (2008). Learning Strategies in Online Collaborative Examinations. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication. doi:10.1109/TPC.2007.2000053
  • Simpson, O., (2006). Predicting student success in open and distance learning, Open Learning, 23(2), 125–138.
  • Thoms, B. (2012, January). Integrating Blogging and Microblogging to Foster Learning and Social Interaction in Online Learning Communities. Paper presented at the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Maui. IEEE Computer Society. doi:10.1109/HICSS.2012.332
  • Tuomi, I., (2013). Open Educational Resources and the Transformation of Education, European Journal of Education, 48(1), 58-78.
  • Williams, R., Karousou, R., & Mackness, J. (2011). Emergent learning and learning ecologies in Web 2.0. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12 (3). pp. 39-60. ISSN 1492-3831

 


For the next couple of years much of my time will be spent on coursework as I have enrolled in George Washington University's Graduate Certificate in eLearning, the first step toward completing the Masters Degree in Education Technology Leadership. In the spirit of learning in public, I plan to use my blog as a thinking and processing space. I'll use the #GWETL tag here on the blog and the same hashtag when tweets are course related. At the moment, I'm registered in Critical Issues in Distance Education and Computer Interface Design for Learning.

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